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Domestic Violence Is a Serious Problem for both Women and Men

"California domestic violence laws violate men's rights because they provide state funding only for women and their children who use shelters and other programs, a state appeals court has ruled."

"The decision by the Third District Court of Appeal in Sacramento requires the programs to be available to male as well as female victims of domestic violence..."

"Justice Fred Morrison said in Tuesday's 3-0 ruling, the state acknowledges that 'domestic violence is a serious problem for both women and men.'"

-- San Francisco Chronicle - 10/16/08

What is child abuse?

Child abuse happens when someone harms a child on purpose.

How can someone abuse you?

  • Physically, by hitting and hurting you with a hand, a flat, a foot, or with some kind of object like an extension cord, or belt.
  • Sexually, when someone touches your private parts, like where your bathing suit or underwear covers, or makes you touch the private parts of his or her body.
  • Verbally, when someone like your parent calls you a name like "stupid" and makes you feel very bad with his or her words.

What do you do if someone abuses you?

  • If someone abuses you, tell your parents, a relative, a teacher, or some other adult you trust. Most adults will believe you.
  • If one adult does not believe you, do not give up. Keep telling people until you feel safe.
  • If someone has hurt you and told you not to tell, tell anyway. Keeping secrets can make you feel bad. Letting out bad secrets will make you feel better.
  • If someone touches you and it makes you feel funny or wierd, it is okay to ask questions, to say "no", or to get away.

Things to Remember

  • Sometimes strangers abuse kids, but sometimes kids are abused by someone they know like a parent, relative, teacher, or a family friend.
  • Abuse is never your fault.
  • If someone abuses you, rememeber to TELL, TELL, TELL!
  • Talk to an adult you trust.
  • Call the police immediately..Dial 911
  • Call the Child Abuse Hotline...Dial 1-800-252-5400
  • 2006 Child Abuse Prevention Kit

What is Child Abuse?

There are four major types of child maltreatment: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.

Physical Abuse is physical injury that results in substantial harm to the child, or the genuine threat of substantial harm from physical injury to the child. The physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) can result from punching, beating, shaking, kicking, biting, throwing, stabbing, hitting, burning, choking, or otherwise harming a child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of whether the caretaker intended to hurt the child.

Suspect Physical Abuse When You See:

  • Frequent injuries such as bruises, cuts, black eyes, or burns without adequate explanations
  • Frequent complaints of pain without obvious injury.
  • Burns or bruises in unusual patterns that may indicate the use of an instrument or human bite; cigarette burns on any part of the body
  • Lack of reaction to pain
  • Aggressive, disruptive, and destructive behavior.
  • Passive, withdrawn, and emotionless behavior
  • Fear of going home or seeing parents
  • Injuries that appear after a child has not been seen for several days.
  • Unreasonable clothing that may hide injuries to arms or legs.

Neglect is failure to provide for a child's basic needs necessary to sustain the life or health of the child, excluding failure caused primarily by financial inability unless relief services have been offered and refused.

Suspect Neglect When You See:

  • Obvious malnourishment
  • Lack of personal cleanliness
  • Torn of dirty clothing
  • Stealing or begging for food
  • Child unattended for long periods of time
  • Need for glasses, dental care, or other medical attention
  • Frequent tardiness or absence from school

Sexual Abuse includes fondling a child's genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or producing pornographic materials.

Suspect Sexual Abuse When You See:

  • Physical signs of sexually transmitted diseases
  • Evidence of injury to the genital area
  • Pregnancy in a young girl
  • Difficulty in sitting or walking
  • Extreme fear of being alone with adults of a certain sex
  • Sexual comments, behaviors or play
  • Knowledge of sexual relations beyond what is expected for a child's age
  • Sexual victimization of other children

Emotional Abuse is mental or emotional injury that results in an observable and material impairment in a child's growth, development, or psychological functioning. It includes extreme forms of punishment such as confining a child in a dark close, habitual scapegoating, belittling, and rejecting treatment for a child.

Suspect Emotional Abuse When You See:

  • Over compliance
  • Low Self-esteem
  • Severe depression, anxiety, or aggression
  • Difficulty making friends or doing things with other children
  • Lagging in physical, emotional, and intellectual development
  • Caregiver who belittles the child, withholds love, and seems unconcerned about the child's problems.

Illegal Procedure

By: Paul Stuckle, Attorney at Law


Reporting Laws & False AllegationsChild Protective Services

This month's edition of Illegal Procedure takes a closer look at the mandatory reporting laws, the best friend of Child Protective Services (CPS). What exactly is CPS? To the general public, Child Protective Services (CPS) is an altruistic caring agency dedicated to the discovery and subsequent protection of abused children. Each state has some form of CPS with nearly identical agendas. The agency is usually a subdivision of the states human resources department.

Children's Protective Services. What a nice, warm and fuzzy sounding name. What a concept. Who, in their right mind, could possibly oppose protecting children, right? Well, if you actually look at what is done to children, parents, families and society in general by this extremely facist and un-American agency (or set of agencies) and the unconstitutional so-called 'Family Courts' you will come to the realization that 'protecting children' is the last thing on the lists of these people. (Silverstorn, The Truth About Child Protective Services,

CPS has had a dramatic increase in size, budget, and power over the last few decades. Part of the reason CPS has gained strength is through Federal subsidizing made possible by the Child Abuse Prevention And Treatment Act of 1974,(CAPTA). This federal law provides funding to states for the creation, development, and utilization of child protective agencies. Bottom line for the falsely accused is this: Child protection is now an enormous financial industry. Each state receives millions of federal dollars in grant money by adopting provisions of CAPTA. Guilty Until Proven Innocent: A Manual for Surviving False Allegations of Child Abuse, Kim Hart). CPS receives money, and significant amounts of it, for the removal of children and placement into foster homes. It has been estimated that CPS receives $3,000.00 to $5,000.00 per month for each child it has removed and placed.

One of the deals CPS has going is they also run the foster care system. The government pays CPS money, a bounty as it were, for each child in state custody. Not only that, but they get paid by the month. What this means is that if CPS takes a child into custody, and holds them for only two days, they get paid by the government, from your tax dollars, for a full month! Add to this the fact they also charge the parents and guardians for the privilege of having the children in foster care. This can be $3000 per month PER CHILD.....OR MORE! Does it begin to sink in yet as to why CPS would be interested in quantity of complaints rather than quality? (Silverstorn, The Truth About Child Protective Services,

The Child Protection Industry

According to the late Dr. Richard Gardner, the reason for the alarming rise in child abuse allegations and specifically false allegations can be rationally explained. "There's a complex network of social workers, mental health professionals, and law enforcement officials that actually encourages charges of child abuse-whether they are reasonable or not." Dr. Gardner is referring to the fact that the Mondale Act (CAPTA)is responsible for the dramatic increase in child abuse charges. "In effect, the Mondale Act, despite its good intentions, created and continued to fund a virtual child abuse industry, populated by people whose livelihoods depend on bringing more and more allegations into the system." (A system out of Control: The Epidemic of False Allegations of Child Abuse, by Armin A. Brott)

Ray Thomas, an accomplished critic of CPS, compares the phenomena of child abuse complaints to the 'Hegelian Principle' utilized by con men. According to Thomas, this requires three steps:

  1. Create A Problem: Or call attention to something you can con the public into believing is a problem;
  2. Publicize the Problem: Make use of every propaganda method known to man to condition the public into believing there is a problem and get your friends in the mass media to publish one or more horror stories every day to condition the masses to believe there really is a problem that needs to be solved;
  3. Offer A Solution: One that takes away one more small right. (But hey? you can afford to give up that 'itty bitty' right in order to solve the problem, can't you?) or add one more small tax. In this manner,they get their victims to give their sanction for their own enslavement.
  4. The victims agree to changes they would not have agreed to without this prior conditioning. (Ray Thomas, Target Your Child

The Madness To The Method

CPS operates with the group mind set of most bureaucracies. The agencies main objective is self preservation: to perpetuate the bureaucracy and to expand the bureaucracy.(Silverstorn, The Truth About Child Protective Services, The method for doing this is by seeking and making cases. CPS does not take a passive role waiting for verified cases of child abuse to be provided to them. Rather, they take an aggressive role seeking out families and children on a mere scintilla amount of evidence. The financial rewards for CPS through removal of children and placement in foster homes is not dependent upon criminal convictions or termination of parental rights. The funding is given to CPS regardless of the outcome of the case, or truth of the allegations. With absolute immunity from liability, the CPS caseworker has no fear of any repercussions for their actions.

CPS actively seeks complaints through a variety of methods. The agency has an enormous budget for propaganda campaigns, which it freely spends to generate cases and subsequent income for itself. CPS is a master manipulator of the public. The agency creates mass hysteria by a fostering a false representation of a child molester lurking behind every tree. The propaganda machine's effectiveness is accomplished by combining two key elements. First, a product, children, a universal symbol of innocence with the need for love and protection. Second, a tried and true sales technique: fear. The fear of having our children kidnaped and murdered. The fear of our children molested. It is a fail safe combination.

The agency advocates the reporting of possible abuse upon mere or even no suspicion. A current CPS ad campaign entails a father with a child entering an elevator occupied by a woman. The man and woman exchange pleasantries and then the father and child leave the elevator. On the fathers back is a sign with large letters reading, 'child abuser.' The narrator then says, "If only child abuse were this easy to see. Trust your instincts. Make the toll free call and report suspected child abuse." Then a toll free phone number is pasted over the television screen. Interestingly about this particular ad is the fact it mirrors CPS investigations in many respects. In the ad, the woman who is being urged to make the call, had absolutely NO EVIDENCE at all of any abuse occurring to the child. Unfortunately, this is the starting point for most CPS investigations. The toll free calls also offer confidentiality. While this protects the genuinely concerned citizen to make a call concerning suspected abuse, it also opens the door for mean spirited and baseless complaints.

CPS advertising agenda calls for Americans, much like the Nazi children of the 1940's to inform on parents and neighbors, without the potential for reprisal, without the requirement of any level of proof. As Ray Thomas notes:

Child Abuse in recent years has taken on a witch hunt atmosphere wherein all it takes is a simple anonymous telephone call to start the nightmare, both for innocent parents and their children. Good Samaritan laws (for the most part) completely protect everybody from retaliation even if they lied in their report for an ulterior motive. (Ray Thomas, Falsely Accused of Child Abuse)

Every state has a toll free child abuse hot line number set up. In addition, advertising for the toll free numbers appear constantly on televison, magazines, and newspapers. The Federal DHS, Children's Bureau has published a how to site including hot line phone numbers for the 50 states on How to Report Suspected Abuse and Neglect.(Susan Smith, Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect, March 2002).

The Mandatory Reporting Law

Each state now has a mandatory child abuse reporting law. The laws are a pre-requisite for the states to receive funding from the federal government under CAPTA. The following offer links to the mandatory reporting laws of each state:


Texas law, for example, requires a professional with cause to believe that a child has been abused or neglected to make a report to CPS within forty-eight hours after suspecting abuse. The professional cannot delegate the responsibility to make the report upon any other person. Tex. Fam. Code 261,101(b). In Texas mandatory reporters include: teachers, nurses, doctors, day-care employees, juvenile probation officers, and juvenile detention or correction officers. The duty to report takes priority over any other recognized legal privilege. There is no privilege to refuse to report available for an attorney, member of the clergy, doctor, social worker, or mental health professional. Tex. Fam. Code 261.101(c). The identity of the professional making the report is confidential unless waived in writing. Tex. Fam. Code 261,101 (d).

Texas follows the trend in other states by requiring any person to make a report if they have 'cause to believe that a child's physical or mental health or welfare has been adversely affected by any person.' Tex. Fam. Code 261.101 (a). In addition, Texas authorizes the District Attorney of the county in which the report is made to be notified of every complaint at the time it is made. Tex. Fam. Code 261.1055

One of the problems for both the mandatory and citizen reporter is the absence of clear guidelines. Although each state law contains definitions of abuse and neglect, it is a matter of personal discretion when the standard is met. The standard itself can be rather vague, calling for a report when an individual has 'cause to believe' abuse or neglect is present. For CPS this is a goldmine, as it increases the number of reports substantially:

They (CPS) have lobbied hard and long and been rewarded with ever increasing numbers of people who are classified as 'mandatory reporters.' What does that mean? It means there are people who if they even suspect a child MIGHT be being abused they MUST by LAW, report the parents or guardians to CPS. They are told by CPS that they did the right thing, that the parents or guardians will be contacted and services will be offered to them. Silverstorn,The Truth About Child Protective Services,home

As Kim Hart, Director of the National Child Abuse Defense Resource Center observes: An allegation of child abuse or neglect may arise from something a child says to someone, such as an angry ex-spouse, neighbor or teacher. The allegation may stem from someone observing the behavior of the child a behavior interpreted as suggesting child abuse.(Guilty Until Proven Innocent: A Manual for Surviving False Allegations of Child Abuse, Kim Hart)

Mandatory reporters face criminal penalties for failure to report. In addition, failure to report results in potential professional misconduct including grievances, discipline, and ultimate loss of the ability to work in one's chosen profession. With this tool, new cases have are reported to CPS upon mere suspicion and often with no suspicion at all. The professional knows that he/she must err on the side of caution. Self preservation takes priority over facts, creating an overabundance of reporting rather than facing the possibility of professional sanctions.

Attorney Jennifer Cox believes there is substantial motivation for mandatory reporters to err on the side of caution:

Despite the fact that there are nominal fines provided as penalties for failing to properly report suspected or known child abuse, in the past agencies of the state have attempted to require institutional providers to pay fines in excess of tens of thousands of dollars in the face of a single isolated technical violation that did not result in any harm to the child. In such cases, these hefty fines were proposed as part of a consent decree offered as a behind-the-scenes deal, with the implicit threat to the facility, should it refuse to pay, that the State might encourage media attention against the institution. The clandestine nature of these proceedings makes it impossible to determine how wide spread the practice was (or potentially still is).(Mandatory Reporting Of Child Abuse: Hidden Dangers for Professionals, Jennifer Cox,)

Dr. Richard Gardner agreed the reporting laws contribute to unnecessary reports:

"As a result, everyone's on the defensive they're afraid that if they don't make a report, they'll be deemed criminals if they inadvertently put a child back in the hands of a real abuser."(A system out of Control: The Epidemic of False Allegations of Child Abuse, by Armin A. Brott)

The motivation to report is further advanced by the presence of immunity. Texas law is representative in that a good faith report renders the reporter immune from civil or criminal liability that might otherwise be incurred or imposed. Tex. Fam. Code 261.106. However, if the falsely accused person attempts to sue a reporter for an unfounded complaint, they will be liable for attorney's fees and other court expenses if the court determines the claim against the reporter was a frivolous claim. Tex. Fam.Code 261.108. There is a penalty for an intentional false report. Tex. Fam. Code 261.107.

False Allegations

The media, legislature and the child saving industry has done an incredible job in creating a national child molestation hysteria. Through these well funded efforts, the general public is convinced a child molesters abound, waiting for the golden opportunity to snatch a child. In addition, not satisfied with just scaring the public, these forces have created a sense that child abuse is occurring behind the closed doors of our neighbors and friends. CPS combines power with the absence of liability and a public perception of righteousness. This leads to abuse of those subjects who unfortunately find themselves hopelessly in the CPS web. It is the perfect recipe for a false allegation.

The numbers of false and unsubstantiated allegations of abuse and neglect continues to grow. There were 2.9 million reports of child abuse in 1996. 2/3rds of those reports were unfounded. Society does not care about the abuse of process, lack of accountability, nor destruction of innocent children and families traumatized by false allegations because the general public has been hyped into irrationality concerning child abuse allegations due to child-saver advocates, politicians and the media.(Guilty Until Proven Innocent: A Manual for Surviving False Allegations of Child Abuse, Kim Hart)

Paul G. Stuckle is a Texas Attorney who specializes in defending false allegations of child abuse and child sexual assault. He also defends parents fighting against the wrongful removal of their children and termination of parental rights at the hands of CPS.

By: Paul Stuckle, Attorney at Law

  1. Representing YourselfFind someone with substantial experience; trial skills are learned in battle;
  2. Domestic violence and child abuse / sexual assault allegations are specialized cases; general experience is not enough. Your attorney must know the specific ways to handle your case;
  3. If an attorney says to cooperate with cps or the police; walk away immediately;
  4. If an attorney says to wait and see if your are indicted; walk away immediately; the best time to get a dismissal is before a formal charge;
  5. Find an attorney who cares, there are some if you look hard enough;
  6. You get what you pay for is a reality in this area; if it sounds too good to be true, it is;
  7. Don't shy away from a good attorney who is not located in the county of your case; many times the "home field advantage" argument is bogus. Home field will always belong to the prosecutor and judge who are in bed together. An outsider who does not care about making anyone happy, but just wants to win, may be the way to go;
  8. Find an attorney who will see you and return calls personally; legal assistants are not good enough;
  9. Find an attorney who wants to go to trial; there is usually nothing to gain in a plea bargain. A family violence conviction will mean that you will lose your children. A sexual assault conviction means the end of your life;
  10. Be patient, take your time, and feel good about your attorney selection. How you respond and fight after being charged with a crime is the most important decision of your life.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. is located in collin county, can defend anywhere in Texas.

discrimination against menOnce again the North Central Texas Council of Governments discriminates against men under the Violence Against Women Act.

No where in today's society is discrimination allowed. Yet this is the second time fathers have been rejected by our government because of sex. One can't help but wonder why the bill's unconstitutional discriminatory language is allowed to continue?

The Smoking Gun

false claims used against fathersThis e-mail was found in a file during discovery and is black-and-white evidence that the mental health professionals in the divorce industry are advising each other to tell their patients or clients to file false domestic violence actions against their husbands because the courts will handle the husband differently once charged.

This letter is between a Dr. Lenore Walker, out of Denver, Colorado and Dr. Dee Brodbeck, a court appointed psychologist handling a custody case for the family courts in Colorado.

Just a little information on Dr. Walker. She was the expert who testified in the O.J. Simpson trial that O.J. was not an abusive husband. Of course she was paid well over a million dollars for her testimony. She has been pretty much maligned by the lawyers in the Denver area because she is prostituting herself to the highest bidder. She hires out all over the country. Almost all of her testimony is against husbands and fathers.

This is all the more reason why attorneys should be demanding all discovery (including all files, memoranda, notes, correspondence between parties & the courts and other mental health experts for consult, and what their psychological philosophies are grounded upon (are they Freudian, etc.), what books they rely on for their testimony or practice, etc.), from all psychologists or so-called "mental health" experts in divorce and/or domestic violence and custody cases.

The e-mail verbatim:

From:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

To:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sent:Tuesday, July 31, 2001 9:41 PM

Subject: Re:Help on a case

Hi Dee

Wow, what a case. I just testified in Philadelphia in a similar one with a dad who is a famous star and has acted his way out of domestic violence charges against several women. The literature isn't as clear as the clinical data. However, here is what I would suggest. Try to get the label 'domestic violence' on the dad's behavior towards the mom. This gets a different handling in the courts as judge's are required to consider dv in deciding relocation cases.

Literature on children exposed to domestic violence is beginning to appear. The best is the book by Holden, Geffner & Jouriles--Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Robbi Rossman from DU is one of the contributing authors and she might have a copy of it. In fact, she might have other literature that I don't have access to. APA published the book. Also, Wolfe & Jaffee have a book out as does Inat Peled on the topic of the psychological injury to children exposed to domestic violence. Robbi Rossman has an article that helps explain the possible changes in brain chemistry as does Dan Goleman in his book on Emotional Intelligence. That is scary...

You can also make the nexus of the power and control literature in battering to the abuse of power and control in dealing with children as they get older and begin asserting their own rights more. I suggest that a complete risk assessment for violence in general and specifically domestic violence be done on the abuser. If you think mental health issues might be coexistant, I also request that a comprehensive psychological be done and if there are sexual abuse issues or even sexually unusual or inappropriate behavior alleged, a complete psychosexual evaluation.

It is clear that more and more women and children are being held captive by our courts and then they wonder why juveniles are becoming more violent!

Hope you are well and enjoying your summer.


As reported to the NFRC discussion group, source not verified 1/23/2003 7:28:47 PM Central Standard Time

By: Paul Stuckle, Attorney at Law


By: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Fighting False AllegationsThe relationship with your spouse, Jenny, has been deteriorating for some time. The unfortunate prospect of divorce is now looming. You have a five year old daughter, Brittany and a four year old son, Josh who mean everything to you. The thought of everyday life without them is too much to bear. Things could not be any worse, or so you thought.

Then out of the blue, it happens. Just when you figured you had enough stress in your life, without your knowledge, without you even being present, a spark flickers which in turn lights a match. By the end of the day this small flame will turn into a raging fire threatening to destroy your entire life and reputation. Forever.

Who knows how the spark first lights? Usually quite innocently. Take the following for an example:

During recess at kindergarten, Brittany's classmate friend Sarah tells Brittany that "her Mommy got her a new soap toy of 'Jessica' from Rugrats". Sarah says that her Mommy and her play with Jessica in the bath. Brittany tells Sarah that "her Daddy plays with her in the bath." That's all Brittany said. The two friends continue to play. Two days later, Sarah tells the teacher that Brittany's Daddy plays with Brittany in the bath. The teacher tells Sarah that is nice. Sarah says that Brittany's daddy touches her "boo-boo."


The teacher eats lunch with the school counselor. The teacher mentions that Sarah told her Brittany's father touches her private parts while she is taking a bath. The counselor leaves the lunch room to call Child Protective Services.


When mother arrives to pick up Brittany from school, the director informs her that a CPS investigator is in his office. Jenny immediately becomes hysterical and demands to know what is going on. Jenny is taken to the office. The CPS investigator asks Jenny how long you have been molesting the children and whether she was aware of it. Jenny is in shock and denies the allegation. She knows the relationship is in disrepair, but also knows that you would never do what this CPS person is claiming. The CPS investigator is quite reassuring to Jenny. "We know that you are not involved," the investigator says, "the complaint has only been made against your husband." The investigator informs Jenny that by law and standard procedure she must take Brittany to the Child Advocacy Center for a videotaped interview. Jenny, crying hysterically, acquiesces.


Jenny drives Brittany over to the Child Advocacy Center. Jenny is trying to act calm. But Brittany can tell that her mommy is upset. "What is it Mommy?" "Where are we going?"

Jenny tells her that some nice people just want to talk to her, and that Brittany can play with dolls and slide down the slide. Then Jenny asks Brittany if anyone has touched her recently. Brittany is confused. She gets touched all the time. Mommy hugs her. Daddy hugs her. Her friends hug her. She wrestles with her baby brother, Josh. "Yes," she replies. Jenny's heart sinks into her lap. Jenny is now shaking with fear and anger. "Has your Daddy touched you?" she asks. Brittany is now also scared. Brittany recognizes that this is not Mommy's usual voice. Mommy is upset. Mommy is mad. Brittany must have done something wrong. "Has your daddy touched you?" Jenny asks again, her voice rising. Brittany begins crying. "No" she says. "Brittany, are you sure?" "No," Brittany replies. "Baby, has Daddy touched you in the bathtub?" Brittany does not know what to say. Daddy touches her in the tub. He helps wash her hair and gives her toys and tells her to soap up real good. "No," Brittany says and looks to see if Mommy is still crying. Mommy is still crying. "Yes" Brittany says. "Daddy touched me."


Within an hour a Child Protective Services Interviewer has made a video tape with Brittany. In the tape Brittany at first says nothing when asked about being touched in bad places by anyone. After fifteen minutes, Brittany wants to leave the room and go back to play with the dolls, the slide, and the jungle gym. When asked if her Daddy has ever touched her boo-boo in the bathtub, Brittany says yes.

When asked how does he touch her boo-boo, Brittany responds that she doesn't know. When asked if this has happened a few times or a lot of times, Brittany says "A lot, I guess."

Then Brittany says that Daddy touches her "tee-tee" too. The CPS worker asks "How does Daddy touch your tee-tee?" Brittany says "With his hand and his fingers." "Does daddy ever stick his fingers in your tee-tee?" Brittany laughs. "Sometimes." When asked if Daddy is dressed when he touches her "tee-tee," Brittany says "Sometimes. And sometimes I see his pee-pee."


The CPS interviewer tells Brittany that she is a very brave little girl and how proud of Brittany she is. Then she asks if Brittany wants to go down the slide again. "Yes," says Brittany.

As Brittany is led to the playroom at the Advocacy Center, the interviewer meets with the prosecutor who has been watching through a two-way mirror. "Sounds like aggravated Sexual Assault," the prosecutor says, and an ongoing case of it as well." "Yes," agrees the interviewer, and I bet the father has been molesting the boy as well."


Impossible, you ask? An exaggeration? I wish. Unfortunately, scenarios such as the above occur all too frequently. The variables for false allegations change depending upon circumstances, for example:

  1. False allegations have been made by mothers who desire to gain the upper hand in a custody battle.
  2. Teen age step children have alleged abuse to get the disciplinarian father out of the house.
  3. School age children will fabricate abuse after observing "Good Touch, Bad Touch" type films at school.
  4. Children know more about sex than our society is willing to recognize. They are bombarded with sexual overtones through the movies, magazines and advertisements.
  5. Some children make false allegations for attention.
  6. Some children make false allegations after hearing about real sexual abuses that have occurred to friends or classmates.

Whatever the initial reason for the allegation, as our hypothetical scenario indicates, what begins as a snowball heading downhill quickly manifests itself into an avalanche. And the innocent father is the one who gets run over.

What should a father do once an allegation has been made?


"I'm innocent. This is crazy. If I talk to them and explain it will go away." This is the initial feeling of the wrongfully accused. They have done nothing wrong and therefore there should be no adverse consequences. Those in authority will quickly recognize their innocence, the mistake, the overreaction, and it will all go away.

For the self proclaimed child savers though, no mistakes are ever made. "Of course the accused will deny it. Who among us would admit to being a child molester? Children do not lie. Adults lie. Molesters lie. You are lying." This is the mind-set of those who will prosecute you. Child Protective Services caseworkers and prosecutors believe the case is over once the child makes an outcry of abuse and that outcry is subsequently substantiated during the videotaped interview. No other evidence is necessary for them to submit the case to a grand jury. No physical evidence of abuse. No medical evidence of abuse. Nothing.

Now they may try to get such evidence. However, in their minds a failure to obtain it does not undermine their conviction that abuse has occurred. Hymen still intact? Well the hymen does not have to be broken in order for abuse to occur, or for digital penetration. Lack of semen? Well, of course, this offense occurred over the course of years and the child did not make an outcry immediately after the incident. Lack of substantiating witnesses? No matter, molesters work behind closed doors, in private, when no one else is around to witness. Lack of criminal record for the accused? The accused is a child molester, he is interested in secretly abusing children, not in committing adult crimes. Has the accused pass a polygraph test? Those are not admissible because a savvy adult can manipulate such tests.

Rule No. 1: Nothing an accused can say or do will convince a childsaver (CPS, Child Advocacy Prosecutor, Police Investigator) that the abuse did not occur. NOTHING!

Rule No. 2: Talking to CPS or the Police Detective, or anyone without an attorney present is the single worst thing a wrongfully accused person can do.

Rule No. 3: In most cases an experienced attorney will not allow you to talk to CPS or the police or give a statement. The attorney knows whatever you say will be used against you.

The violation of the above three rules by those falsely accused is commonplace. An innocent person believes sanity will intervene at some point, and decides to cooperate fully with the police and Child Protective Services. The accused gives written statements and videotaped statements to CPS and the police. In addition, the accused talk on the phone to detectives and caseworkers. They talk in the investigators offices without knowing whether they are being recorded. They often talk themselves into a corner that is extremely difficult to ever get out of.

In addition to the three golden rules, there are many things the falsely accused individual can do to help themselves and their lawyer. Dean Tong, a nationally known consultant and survivor of a false allegation offers the following tips:


  • Recognize you're in for the fight of your life.
  • Retain expert legal counsel.
  • Find the necessary resources to defend yourself properly.
  • Become familiar with the said (sexual abuse incident to divorce) and parental alienation syndromes.
  • Ensure your attorney has experience with voir dire of experts.
  • Ensure your attorney has experience litigating daubert-frye (admissibility of opinion and evidence hearings).
  • Secure, at least, supervised visits with your child, at the soonest time possible.
  • Hold social workers accountable by taking copious notes of interviews.
  • If possible, electronically record cps interviews.
  • Do not incriminate yourself.....If you talk to the enemy it will be used against you in court.
  • Do not plea bargain, plead nolo contendere, no contest, accept an alford plea, or consent to dependency in juvenile-family court.
  • Do not waive your constitutional rights.
  • Realize that an unfounded finding by cps could still mean guilt in the eyes of the court.
  • Document everything throughout the divorce / custody suit.
  • If something seems wrong have an eyewitness present at all visits with your child to corroborate your testimony.
  • Remain in the house, unless ordered to move out by the court or advised to do so by a professional you trust.
  • Treat the accusation very seriously.
  • Have an independent psychologist suggested by your attorney appointed to evaluate the entire family.
  • Attempt to regain custody or visitation immediately, with the understanding such custody or visitation will include constant adult supervision by a third party.
  • Shift the court?S focus from the alleged conduct of the accused (you) to the psychological functioning of the accuser (spouse).
  • Maintain contact with the alleged victim.
  • Steadfastly maintain your innocence.
  • Keep detailed records about everything.
  • Maintain files of all documents and review them for inconsistencies.
  • Keep a daily journal of events.
  • Track past, present, and future events on the calendar and in the diary, noting where you were, whom you were with and what you did, whether you had your children or not.
  • Obtain evidence that is admissible in court...Affidavits from friends, children, and character references.
  • Have a reliable witness at all meetings, interviews, and phone conversations.
  • After all meetings, interviews, and phone calls, write to the person with whom you spoke, listing the main points discussed and asking that if you have misinterpreted anything they respond by return mail to your letter. Mail the original certified, return receipt requested, and keep a copy.
  • Obtain and keep transcripts of all proceedings.
  • Be careful what you say, it will be used against you.
  • Attempt to insure the child is not being coached.
  • Recognize the social worker is trying to build a case against you, no matter how they try to impress you as being helpful.
  • Get involved; help yourself and your attorney.
  • Take a lie detector test, paid for in cash.
  • Be prepared and willing to go to court.
  • Have a family doctor with whom you can substantiate any injuries.
  • If possible, have the child independently examined. Do not consent to the child being examined by a doctor associated with social services.
  • Do not accept a public defender to represent you.
  • Do not expect common sense in the activities of child protection workers, prosecutors, or the courts. Their motivations and objectives are often misguided.
  • Do not admit to anything you have not done.
  • Do not offend the child protection workers. They will be looking for anything that can be used to cast you in a negative light.
  • Do not interrogate your child at all about the mothers? Intentions/actions or the child?S acute transformation of behavior, if any.
  • Do not act guilty.
  • Do not make any concessions.
  • Do not waive any rights, especially to a hearing.
  • Do not attempt to influence the children by telling them horror stories about their mother.
  • Do not give up!

Stephen D. Finstein, LMSW-ACP, LMFT, Mental Health Advisor and Director, National Fathers' Resource Center also adds the following:

  1. If you can't afford an attorney, or the necessary experts, get a second or third job in order to do so. You may need to hire both a civil attorney (e.g. if you are in a divorce or custody battle) and a criminal attorney (e.g. if you are charged with sexual assault of a child or domestic violence).
  2. Work closely with a fathers' right organization. They are usually familiar with false allegations, and they can often help you find experts who are familiar with false allegations of child abuse, domestic violence, spousal rape.
  3. Network with others who have successfully fought false allegations. You can find them through a fathers' rights organization. Read books about false allegations.
  4. If you did nothing wrong, never admit that you did. Sometimes CPS or a prosecutor may suggest that if you simply admit abusing your child and agree to go into treatment, your family can be re-unified and the whole problem will "go away." This can be tempting, but if you admit abuse it will be difficult if not impossible to change that admission later on.
  5. If CPS requires you to be in individual or family counseling, it's best to find your own counselor/therapist rather than use their "contract" counselors. Often the "contract" counselors are afraid to contradict the CPS investigator's findings for fear of losing their contract. They get paid for counseling abusers, not for finding that you are not an abuser. If you have no choice and are required to see one of their therapists, it's also a good idea to hire your own as well.
  6. When CPS determines that you abused your child, they usually present you with a written finding. They should also inform you about your right to appeal their finding administratively. Do not miss the deadlines for filing for an administrative appeal!! A significant number of CPS findings are overturned on administrative appeal. A fathers' rights organization or counselor referred by them can often help you with your appeal, in addition to your attorney.
  7. If you are falsely accused of domestic violence, either a misdemeanor or felony, it may be tempting to plead "no contest" and accept deferred adjudication, pay a fine, and attend "batterer's intervention" counseling. This is a trap. If you do this, it will seriously weaken you if you later find yourself in a custody battle in civil/family court.

*Summarized and reprinted with permission from, Elusive Innocence - Survival Guide For The Falsely Accused, Dean Tong, Huntington House Publishers, 2002.

It is hoped that this information will be of help to anyone who is ever facing the tremendous horror of a false accusation. With a good lawyer, and a strong fight, these accusations can be overcome. It is an uphill battle, with many bruises and bleeding along the way. But there is no other way than to fight like hell.

Paul practices throughout the State of Texas. He can be contacted at the following:numbers: 972-423-4405; by the e-mail at the top of this page; or visit his website at

Domestic Violence At Men

Domestic Violence At MenThis is a 2002 paper prepared by Dr. Charles E. Corry (Equal Justice Foundation, Inc.), Prof. Martin S. Fiebert, and Erin Pizzey.

The paper compiles and discusses research regarding the rising instances of domestic violence perpatrated against men by women. Information is provided to educate men to the very real threats that exist, and how to handle the situation of dealing with a violent woman should the need arise.

False Allegations Of Child AbuseThe National Fathers' Resource Center and Fathers for Equal Rights is adamant in its belief that child abuse in general cannot be tolerated; and child sexual abuse, in particular, is among the most heinous of deeds. Sexual abusers of children must be exposed for their criminal acts. The guilty must be punished, and children must be protected from their aggressors. Preferring to err on the side of false accusations rather than to risk a child's safety, some courts have tended toward a mind-set of "guilty until proven innocent" in the case of alleged sexual abuse. We appreciate the good intentions of this conservative approach; but we are also keenly aware of the devastation that it wreaks on the falsely accused, especially when coupled with the "winner takes it all" mentality of some divorce and custody battles.

False allegations of child sexual abuse have become "a popular game" in family courts in recent years. Statistically, it has been reported that 70-80% of divorce-linked child sexual abuse cases are hoaxes. Since it is nearly impossible to "prove yourself innocent," it is often preferable to approach the problem by demonstrating that the allegations are unsubstantiated, illogical, self-contradictory, and frivolous. The accusations don't make sense; they don't stack-up; they're just not believable!

There are times when nobody should attempt to represent himself/herself as a pro se litigant, and anytime you are facing false allegations of sex abuse, you need an attorney skilled in cross-examination. Often, parents falsely accused of child abuse, including sexual abuse, need the assistance of both a civil-law attorney to handle the divorce and/or custody issues and a criminal-law attorney to represent the accused in criminal court. This is no time for amateur pro se representation: the stakes are too high for the child's well-being, the child's self-esteem, your reputation, your job, your peace of mind, and even your freedom.

You can be of tremendous assistance to your attorney in preparing your defense if you take advantage of the varied resources available to help you understand the nature of false accusations. These resources range from reading materials and mental health professionals, to organizations that specialize in working with people for whom false allegations have split their families apart and inflicted terrible pain on everyone concerned.

Do The Math! Approximately 7,600 reports of child abuse occur each day and over 7,200 are eventually classified as false allegations. Since only 400 are confirmed as valid cases, why are over 3,000 children taken from parents each day? That's over 1,000,000 children every year. Why are billions of taxpayer dollars and hundreds of thousands of man-hours wasted investigating false allegations of abuse? Why are kicking, screaming children forcibly removed from loving, responsible parents and placed in foster care where they are ten times more likely to be physically and/or sexually abused? The threat to the health and welfare of families is real, epidemic, and must be dealt with through effective Family Rights legislation."

The NFRC and FER strongly suggest that for those who are falsely accused; never, never plea-bargain "no contest." The effects of such an action are devastating. You will be forever known as a deviant sex offender and you will never be able to recover a normal life.


Texas Family Code, Chapter 153.013 and 261.107, Report of Child Abuse. Includes a section titled "False Report."

Advanced Family Law Course, Vol 4, 1989, State Bar of Texas. See Chapter UU - "Litigating a Child Abuse Claim." This chapter instructs attorneys how to "put together" their case; how to organize the information, present the evidence, exhibits, etc., whether prosecuting or defending the accused. An appendix to this chapter, written by Dr. Kit Harrison, titled "False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse" addresses reasons for false claims and some methods used by psychologists for detecting false claims. This chapter can help you organize your notes, facts, and evidence for your attorney.

Advanced Family Law Course, Vol 3, 1990, State Bar of Texas. Chapter AA - "Child Abuse and Custody" addresses many aspects of the problem, including the competence of a child witness, the hearsay rule, use (and problems) of anatomically correct dolls, whether children lie about sexual abuse, and the trial. By Judge Enrique Pena.

Advanced Family Law Course, Vol 4, 1991. (Found in any Texas Law Library.) Chapter TT - "Sex Abuse" discusses opinion and expert testimony; the role of the Attorney Ad Litem (for the child); simultaneous criminal and civil proceedings in a child sex abuse case; and the evaluation of a child abuse case from the prosecutor's point of view.

Marriage Dissolution, Vol 1, 1991, State Bar of Texas. (Found in any Texas Law Library.) Chapter Q - "Abuse: Physical, Sexual and Emotional" addresses problems related to allegations, the credibility of the accuser(s), and the use of mental health professionals. It suggests pre-trial intervention measures for protecting the child, and aspects of the judicial process including communication between courts.

Domestic Torts by Leonard Karp. (Found in any County Law Library.)

There are several books on the shelf dealing with neglect and abuse of children, and how the courts handle such claims. This is one of the better books in the collection. (A tort is a wrongful act for which a civil action will exist, except for an act involving a breach of contract.)

Ashes to Ashes Families to Dust, False Accusations of Child Abuse: A Roadmap for Survival by Dean Tong, Family Rights Press, Tampa, FL, 1996. Paperback, $18.95. A must read. (Call 800-987-7771 to order.)


After false allegations of child sexual abuse have been entered into the court, either in the form of written pleadings or orally at a hearing, you may ask the court to appoint a psychologist to evaluate the entire family. A court-appointed evaluator eliminates arguments between spouses about which psychologist to use. Several of them specialize in children and are highly regarded by the courts for impartiality, objectivity and integrity in their evaluations and reports. Some, unfortunately, are "hired guns" and cannot be trusted. The better psychologists do not attempt to represent just one parent to the court; they evaluate entire families. Sessions are typically 45-50 minutes in length. You can expect fees in the neighborhood of $100 per hour. Some psychologists accept insurance.

The Fathers for Equal Rights organization,  FER,  maintain a referral listing of psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, counselors and other mental health professionals to assist members. Members should consult with our chapter or the Dallas chapter's Mental Health Consultant (below), who is a licensed social worker and marriage & family therapist, before selecting counselors, mediators, or other mental health professionals. You will be referred to a professional who can provide appropriate services for yourself, your children, or your family, according to your particular circumstances. We can also prepare you to anticipate specific questions that are frequently asked during social studies.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , LMSW-ACP, Mental Health Consultant. 1222 Commerce Street, Suite 410. Phone 214-749-0614. 

(If you have committed a sexual offense against a child and sincerely want to prevent a relapse, and you want to protect society, effective rehabilitative treatment is available through a Registered Sex Offender Treatment Provider (RSOTP). For referral to a qualified therapist, contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., LMSW-ACP. Confidentiality is assured.)

The Facts Don't Lie

Women Often The AggressorsA mountain of DV research clearly establishes that women are frequently the aggressors in domestic combat, often employing the element of surprise and weapons to compensate for men's strength.

The most recent large-scale study of domestic violence was published in the American Journal of Public Health last year. The researchers analyzed data concerning 11,370 respondents. According to the researchers, "[H]alf of [violent relationships] were reciprocally violent. In non reciprocally violent relationships, women were the perpetrators in more than 70% of the cases." (This study is illustrated in the diagram at right from the Psychiatric News, 8/3/07).

A quarter of the women surveyed admitted perpetrating violence, and when the violence involved both parties, women were more likely to have been the first to strike.

Such findings are consistent with decades of domestic violence research. The National Institute of Mental Health funded and oversaw two of the largest studies of domestic violence ever conducted, both of which found equal rates of abuse between husbands and wives.

California State Long Beach University professor Martin Fiebert maintains an online bibliography summarizing 219 scholarly investigations, with an aggregate sample size exceeding 220,000, which concludes "women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners."

Nor is this violence trivial. A meta-analytic review of 552 domestic violence studies published in the Psychological Bulletin found that 38% of the physical injuries in heterosexual domestic assaults are suffered by men.

Dr. Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling of the University of South Alabama says that as she and other researchers grappled with this research, "Every time we tried to say that women's intimate partner abuse is different than men's, the evidence did not support it."

According to Dr. Donald Dutton, author of Rethinking Domestic Violence, research shows that domestic violence is actually more common in lesbian relationships than in heterosexual relationships. For example, one study of 1,100 lesbian or bisexual women who are in abusive lesbian relationships found that the women were more likely to have experienced violence in their previous relationships with women than in their previous relationships with men.

Domestic violence service sometimes providers justify their exclusion of male victims by citing crime and/or crime survey statistics which show that most reports of domestic violence are by women. Dr. Dutton explains:

"Domestic violence 'research' has been misleading, in that data has been extracted from crime reports and/or crime victim surveys - in which men underreport more than women - and have been publicized as indicating domestic violence is a gender issue (male-perpetrator/female-victims).

"In fact, when larger surveys with representative samples are examined, perpetration of domestic violence perpetration is slightly more common for females..."

In the column to the right we provide quotes from numerous internationally-respected domestic violence authorities, all of whom, attest that domestic violence is committed by both men and women.

The Grand Jury Phase

by Paul Stuckle

Paul Stuckle and Ferguson
Attorneys at Law
A False Allegation Firm
1001 20th Street
Plano, Texas 75074
972-423-4405 (o)
972-423-3447 (f)
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

"How can a child describe sexual abuse without experiencing it?"
- Any prosecutor, any County, any State, Everywhere

"The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting."
- Sun Tzu, 'The Art of War '

"The burden of proof shifts in a chid molestation case. The old rules do not apply. The government cannot, by conventional methods, prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt. In reality the burden is on the defense to disprove the allegations beyond all doubt. One envisions Alice In Wonderland suffering the diatribe of the vexatious Queen of Hearts: 'Off with their heads !!! Unless, of course my dear you prove to my satisfaction something did not happen.'"
- Paul Stuckle

The best way to win a false child abuse allegation is to strike early and quickly. The defense has a golden opportunity to have the case dismissed at the grand jury level before facing a formal criminal indictment. Far too many lawyers advise against presenting evidence to a grand jury. This is a huge tactical blunder. Almost every client who fails to present a grand jury defense will be indicted. Almost every client who presents a thorough and aggressive grand jury defense has an excellent chance to avoid an indictment.

This article will proceed on the basis of the hypothetical fact scenario set forth below. All of the characters (other than the law firm) are fictional and any resemblance to any real person is purely coincidental. The fact scenario selected involves an adolescent stepdaughter who makes a false accusation against her stepfather.

(Please click the PDF File below to view entire article.)

Domestic ViolenceThe Fathers for Equal Rights organization is adamant in its belief that Domestic Violence cannot be tolerated. The FER also demands that the society acknowledge that Domestic Violence is an equal problem for both genders.

FACT: 50% or more of domestic violence (spouse or "significant other" assaults) are perpetrated by women. This is confirmed by hundreds of valid studies, the authors of which are sometimes threatened with discontinuation of funding for being politically incorrect (this means saying what powerful people don't want to hear). Part of the poison that the women's groups spew is the blatantly false allegation that 95% of DV is perpetrated by men against women. The women's groups have promoted this lie for so long now, many people, including men, actually believe it. Even the Office of Violence Against Women has shown 34% of DV is against men.

Nevertheless, the radical feminist groups have been working overtime for many years to promote the libelous propaganda that men are violent towards women and children and can't be trusted. If a lie is repeated often enough, people start believing it. And in fact, most of the policy makers in American society have bought into the lie. One result is millions of dollars of our tax money funneled to domestic violence shelters (read: women's shelters) and other related programs. Another result of this pernicious libel is seen in domestic violence laws that presume that men are the primary aggressors. We all know that if mom calls 911, dad will be arrested. If dad calls 911, dad will be arrested. Fathers, grandfathers, husbands, boyfriends, are all portrayed by shelter spokespersons as being untrustworthy (unless of course they need to be sent to war.)

Fathers for Equal Rights organization demands that society acknowledge that false claims of Domestic Violence is used to gain unfair advantage in custody and divorce cases.

Fathers' organizations now estimate that up to 80% of domestic violence allegations against men are false allegations. Since society offers women so many perks for claiming that they are victims of DV (we call these perks "warm milk and cookies"), false or staged DV allegations now appear to be even more frequent in family court cases than false sex abuse allegations. And they are much easier to fabricate. Mom can simply scratch her arm with her fingernail and claim that dad did it to her! Many men plead "no contest" to these allegations, often because they cannot afford good legal representation. What father, who has been kicked out of his house, estranged from his children, paying exorbitant child support and spousal support, and may lose his job if convicted of domestic violence, can afford good legal representation, both in family court and in criminal court? So, he rolls over and pleads "no contest," which of course is the kiss of death in his custody case. It may also keep him from owning a gun, including a rifle or shotgun for hunting purposes, and in many cases it has resulted in good police officers losing their jobs (because they can't carry a gun) or even soldiers being dismissed from the military, because they too are often prohibited from using firearms.

The domestic violence industry was hijacked by the feminists around 30 years ago, however perhaps the most damaging process took place some 15 years ago, namely the "fusing" of the domestic violence industry with the divorce industry. Simply stated, women know, and are often advised by their attorneys, that if they want to get custody of the children, they had better try to nail dad with some sort of domestic violence accusation. In many states, that alone will nail the coffin. Dad will be labeled a perpetrator, will lose custody of his children, will be placed under supervised visitation with his children, will often pay mom's attorney fees and court costs, will be ordered to pay alimony, will be forced to pay for and attend "anger management" or "batterers" classes often lasting 36 weeks, and will be required by the court to send financial contributions to the local women's shelter. (This reminds one of the Nazi practices of forcing Jews to purchase tickets for their own "train rides" to death camps.) Keep in mind, the domestic violence allegation against dad does not have to be true, it only has to sound plausible for it to stick, and we see the devastating success of the poisonous propaganda. Goebbels couldn't have orchestrated it better.

Texas Fathers for Equal Rights is adamant in its belief that child abuse in general cannot be tolerated; and child sexual abuse, in particular, is among the most heinous of deeds. Sexual abusers of children must be exposed for their criminal acts. The guilty must be punished, and children must be protected from their aggressors.

FACT: According to nationwide CPS statistics, the largest percentage of child abuse/neglect is perpetrated by the mother, acting alone. Remember Andrea Yates, Susan Smith, Darlie Routier? Fathers are far less likely to be child abuse/neglect perpetrators. In other words, children are safer from child abuse/neglect with their fathers than with their mothers.

A college study asked male and female students if they had a sexual experience before age 15 with a person 5 or more years older. The results were that 59% of the students were molested by a female. Of male college students surveyed, 43 - 60% report being sexually victimized by females.

The Fathers for Equal Rights organization demands that state and federal laws that severely punish those who make false claims of Domestic Violence.

The guilty must be punished-that is those who commit the act and those who falsely accuse spouses to gain advantage in divorce.

The Fathers for Equal Rights organization wants to share information and remove stereo types connected with Domestic Violence.

Knowledge is power. And that is the purpose this section on domestic violence. Learn how the domestic violence industry thinks and works. Learn how they deceive the lawmakers and the public, and study the techniques they use. Learn about their collaborators in the police departments, the prosecutors' offices, the federally funded legal services programs, and in the courtrooms. Follow the money trail, and discover who is enriched by the mass demonization and criminalization of men and fathers. Prevention is best, but if you are facing a false domestic violence accusation, we want you to have the knowledge and tools to fight it most effectively and to protect the right of your children to have a positive, healthy, and meaningful relationship with you, their nurturing and protective father.

Fathers For Equal Rights is such a great help to people in need!
  -- Joe & Rachel B. - Fort Worth, TX

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